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 Passive voice

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ThienNu
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Bài gửiTiêu đề: Passive voice   Wed Feb 17, 2010 9:41 am

A sentence can be either in the active or passive voice. In an "active" sentence, the subject performs the action. In a "passive" sentence, the subject receives the action. To make an active sentence into a passive sentence, follow these steps.
Một câu có thể trong dạng hoạt động hay thụ động. Trong 1 câu "hoạt động" , Subject thực hiện hành động. Trong 1 câu "thụ động", Subject nhận hành động. Để tạo 1 câu dạng hoạt động sang dạng thụ động, theo các bước sau. (Chú ý mẫu câu either ...or....Dùng để chỉ sự lựa chọn. Vidu: Either French or Spanish.)

(1) Place the complement of the active sentences at the beginning of the passive sentence.
Đặt phần complement (Object) của câu hoạt động ở đầu câu thụ động.

(2) If there are any auxiliaries in the active sentence, place them immediately after the new subject agreeing in number with the subject.
Nếu có bất kỳ động từ auxiliaries trong câu hoạt động, đặt chúng ngay lập tức sau Subject mới sao cho phù hợp với số ít hay số nhiều của subject mới.

(3) Insert the verb be after the auxiliary or auxiliaries in the same form as the main verb in the active sentence.
Chèn động từ be sau động từ auxiliaries trong cùng thể như dộng từ chính trong câu hoạt động.

(4) Place the main verb from the active sentence after the auxiliaries and be in the past participle.
Đặt động từ chính trong câu hoạt động sau động từ auxiliaries và be trong thể past participle.

(5) Place the subject of the active sentence after the verb in the passive sentence preceded by the preposition by. (This can be eliminated completely if it is not important or is understood.)
Đặt subject trong câu hoạt động sau động từ của câu thụ động và trước từ by. (Điều này có thể được loại bỏ hoàn toàn nếu nó không phải là quan trọng hoặc được hiểu rõ.)

Simple present or Simple past

{am, is, are, was, were} + Verb in past participle.

EX:
Active: Hurricanes destroy a great deal of property each year.
subject , present , complement
Passive: A great deal of property is destroyed by hurricanes each year.
singular subject, be, past participle, new complement

EX:
Active: The tornado destroyed thirty houses.
Subject, past, complement
Passive: Thirty houses were destroyed by the tornado
Plural subject, be, past participle, new complement

Present progressive or Past progressive

{am, is, are, was, were}+ being+ [verb in past participle]

EX:
Active: The committee is considering several new proposals.
Subject, present progressive, complement
Passive: several new proposals are being considered by the committee
Plural subject, auxiliary, be, past participle, new complement

EX:
Active: The committee was considering several new proposals.
Subject, past progressive, complement
Passive: Several new proposals were being consideredby the committee
Plural subject, auxiliary, be, past participle, new complement

Present perfect or past perfect

{has, have, had}+ been+ [verb in past participle]

EX:
Active: The company has ordered some new equipment.
Subject, present perfect, complement
Passive: Some new equipment has been ordered by the company
Singular subject, auxiliary, be, past participle, new complement
EX:
Active: The company had ordered some new equipment before the strike began.
Subject, past perfect, complement
Passive: Some new equipment had been ordered by the company before the strike began.
Subject, auxiliary, be, past participle, new complement

Modals

modals+ be+ [verb in past participle]

Modals: Can, shall, will, must, may, dare. Có thể tìm hiểu bằng từ khóa modal verbs trên web: google.com
EX:
Active: The manager should sign these contracts today.
Subject, modal, verb, complement
Passive: These contracts should be signed by the manager today.
Subject, modal, be, past participle, new complement

Modals + Perfect

modal+ have+ been+ [verb in past participle]

EX:
Active: Somebody should have called the president this morning.
Subject, modal, perfect, complement
Passive: The president should have been called this morning.
Subject, modal, have, be, past participle

Exercise Passive Voice
Change the following sentences from active to passive voice.
1/ Somebody calls the president every day.
2/ John is calling the other members.
3/ Martha was delivering the documents to the department.
4/ The other member have repealed the amendment.
5/ The delegates had received the information before the recess.
6/ The teacher should buy the supplies for this class.
7/ Somebody will call Mr. Watson tonight.
8/ The fire has caused considerable damage.
9/ The company was developing a new procedure before the bankruptcy hearings began.
10/ John will have received the papers by tomorrow.

Answer
1/ The president is called (by somebody) every day.
2/ The other member are being called by John.
3/ The documents were being delivered to the department by Martha .
4/ The amendment has been repealed by the other member.
5/ The information had been received by the delegates before the recess.
6/ The supplies for this class should be bought by the teacher.
7/ Mr. Watson will be called (by somebody) tonight.
8/ Considerable damage has been caused by the fire.
9/ A new procedure was being developed by the company before the bankruptcy hearings began.
10/ The papers will have been received by John by tomorrow.

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Được sửa bởi ThienNu ngày Fri Feb 19, 2010 8:23 am; sửa lần 2.
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Bài gửiTiêu đề: Re: Passive voice   Thu Feb 18, 2010 10:52 am

Để làm tốt câu passive voice, cần phân biệt 2 loại động từ transitive và intransitive.

* Only transitive verbs can be used in the passive:

Active: Bob mailed the letter.
Passive: The letter is mailed by Bob.

* Intransitive verbs is NOT used in the passive:

Active: An accident happened.
Passive: (not possible)
Incorrect: An accident was happened.

* Transitive verb is an action verb that is followed by an object. An object is a noun or a pronoun that receives the action. This Object answers to the question "Who[m] or what"

Example: I know the story. (story is noun. The story is noun phrase)
(What do I know?- The story)

Peter loves Mary
Who[m] does Peter love? - Mary

* Intransitive verb is a verb that is not followed by an object. An intransitive verb includes all linking verbs and any action verbs that don't take an object. The sentence may end with the verb, an adjective, or an adverb. The questions one may ask with these forms are " When, where, how, or why"

Example:
The children sat.

The children sat at 7:30 pm.
(When did the children sit? - at 7:30 pm)

The children sat at the table.
(Where did the children sit? - At the table)

The children sat quietly.
(How did the children sit? - Quietly)

The children sat because their mother told them to.
(Why did the children sit? - Because their mother told them to)

NOTE: Linking verb là các động từ như feel, smell, sound, taste, look, grow, become, appear, remain... Có thể tìm hiểu bằng cách gõ Linking verb vào google.com mà tìm câu trả lời.

Bài tập phân biệt Vt: Transitive verb và Vi: Intransitive verb.

1/ The Mendozas went to the Grand Canyon.
2/ They had never visited it before.
3/ Mr.Mendoza drove the car most of the way.
4/ He drove for miles through the desert.
5/ The childern rode in the back seat.
6/ Luis saw the canyon first.
7/ No one felt sadder than Roberto.
8/ Roberto loved the shepherd!
9/ The next day the caretaker did stop.
10/ Bobby had found a home on the prairie.
11/ The workers had built a sturdy metal fence.
12/ I inherited a cat from the former tenants.
13/ Smith, the cat, sat quietly on the sofa.
14/ I drove to the kennel for my two dogs.
15/ The dogs would see Smith soon.
16/ I offered the dogs treats.
17/ I gave each dog a warning about politeness.
18/ Then I entered the house with the two canines.
19/ The cat bristled.
20/ I gave the cat a hug.
21/ The poodle gave the cat a sniff.
22/ Jones understood cats.

Trả lời:
Ở đây có cách nhìn ra Vt là phải nhìn ra complement theo sau Vt, Complement trong sách khác gọi là Object. Xem lại complement ở đây
http://bangminhkiem.forumotion.com/forum-f21/topic-t149.htm

1/ The Mendozas went (to the Grand Canyon.)
"to the Grand Canyon" : prepositional phrase- Xem lại prepositional phrase ở phần Modifier trang http://bangminhkiem.forumotion.com/forum-f21/topic-t149.htm
to : preposition
Grand Canyon: Object preposition là noun (viết tắt là OP.)
=> Went : Vi
2/ They had never visited it (before.)
It: Direct Object (viết tắt là DO)
=> had visited: Vt
3/ Mr.Mendoza drove the car (most of the way.)
car: DO
=>drove: Vt
4/ He drove (for miles) (through the desert).
(for miles): Prepositional phrase
(through the desert): Prepositional phrase
Ko có DO => drove: Vi
5/ The childern rode (in the back seat.)
(in the back seat.): Prepositional phrase
Ko có DO => rode: Vi
6/ Luis saw the canyon first.
canyon: DO
=> saw : Vt
7/ No one felt sadder than Roberto.
felt : linking verb => felt : Vi
8/ Roberto loved the shepherd!
shepherd: DO
=> loved : Vt
9/ The next day the caretaker did stop.
Ko có DO => did stop: Vi
did stop trông có vẻ lạ, do động từ Do đi với stop dùng để nhấn mạnh sự chú ý.
10/ Bobby had found a home (on the prairie.)
(on the prairie.): preposition phrase
home: DO
=> had found: Vt
11/ The workers had built a sturdy metal fence.
fence: DO
=> had built: Vt
12/ I inherited a cat (from the former tenants.)
(from the former tenants.): Prepositional phrase
cat: DO
=> inherited: Vt
13/ Smith, the cat, sat quietly (on the sofa.)
(on the sofa.): Prepositional phrase
quietly: adverb
Ko có DO => sat : Vi
14/ I drove (to the kennel) (for my two dogs.)
(to the kennel) and (for my two dogs.): Prepositional phrase
Ko có DO => drove : Vi
15/ The dogs would see Smith soon.
Smith: DO => would see: Vt
16/ I offered the dogs treats.
dogs: Indirect Object
treats: DO
=> offered : Vt
17/ I gave each dog a warning (about politeness.)
(about politeness.): Prepositional phrase
warning: DO
dog: Indirect Object
=> gave: Vt
18/ Then I entered the house (with the two canines.)
(with the two canines.): Prepositional phrase
house: DO
=> entered : Vt
19/ The cat bristled.
Ko có DO => bristled: Vi
20/ I gave the cat a hug.
hug: DO
cat: Indirect Object
=> gave: Vt
21/ The poodle gave the cat a sniff.
gave: Vt
22/ Jones understood cats.
understood : Vt

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Bài gửiTiêu đề: Re: Passive voice   Fri Feb 19, 2010 5:57 am

Exercise Passive Voice
Change the following sentences from active to passive voice.
1/ Mike rode the bike to school.
2/ Jeri bought food at the store.
3/ Mom cooked the peas for supper.
4/ In the story, James built a fire.
5/ A long time ago, settlers left home by horse.
6/ If you go now, Dad will take you to the beach.
7/ Tell Sue to catch the ball!
8/ The policeman chased the crook down the street.
9/ Watch out! That rock is going to hit the road.
10/ Jenna had a party. She invited them to the house.
11/ Ms. Davis has planted several trees.

Answer
1/ Mike rode the bike (to school.)
The bike was ridden by Mike to school.
NOTE: (to school.) prepositional phrase giử nguyên vị trí. Dùng was do "ride" thể simple past và Mike là ngôi thứ 3 số ít.

2/ Jeri bought food (at the store.)
Food was bought by Jeri at the store.
Dùng was do "food" là non-count noun và "buy" thể simple past.

3/ Mom cooked the peas (for supper.)
The peas were cooked by Mom for supper.

4/ (In the story), James built a fire.
In the story, a fire was built by James.

5/ (A long time ago), settlers left home by horse.
A long time ago, home was left by settlers by horse.

6/ If you go now, Dad will take you (to the beach.)
If you go now, you will be taken by Dad to the beach.

7/ (you) Tell Sue (to catch the ball!)
Xem như trước câu có "you", cái này thấy lạ vì sách Toefl nói ko cần "by"
Sue is told by you to catch the ball.

8/ The policeman chased the crook (down the street.)
The crook was chased by the policeman down the street.

9/ Watch out! That rock is going to hit the road.
Watch out! The road is going to be hit by that rock.

10/ Jenna had a party. She invited them (to the house.)
A party was had by Jenna. They were invited by her to the house.

11/ Ms. Davis has planted several trees.
Several trees have been planted by Ms. Davis .
NOTE: has planted thuộc present perfect. Dùng have chứ ko dùng has vì Several trees dạng số nhiều.

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Được sửa bởi ThienNu ngày Sat Feb 20, 2010 12:10 pm; sửa lần 1.
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Bài gửiTiêu đề: Re: Passive voice   Fri Feb 19, 2010 8:29 am

Làm thêm bài tập online có sửa ở trang
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive

và trang http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htm

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